Thursday, October 16, 2014

(Published in the International Journal of Exercise Science)

Kelly A. Brooks, Jeremy G. Carter, Richard S. Crise, Erik J. Beiser, and David J. Szymanski

PURPOSE: To observe changes over each inning in body position, pitch velocity, and joint angle during baseball pitching of an intrasquad game. METHODS: Six Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers volunteered to wear a Zephyr BioHarness during an intrasquad game while a high-speed camera captured their pitching performance. The BioHarness device records several variables, including body position and acceleration. The pitcher’s performance was analyzed with Dartfish software. The trunk, elbow, glenohumeral joint, and knee were examined while pitching from the stretch. RESULTS: Five pitchers each completed five innings, and one completed six. The pitchers averaged 15.7 pitches per inning. Based on the kinematic data, during the windup, there is a significant difference in hip (p<0.05) and knee angle from the first to the last inning. In the stride and early cocking phases, there were no significant differences in joint angle found between the first and last inning for all four joints evaluated. In both the late cocking phase and acceleration phase, there was a significant difference in joint angle of the glenohumeral joint, as shoulder horizontal adduction angle increased,   and notable changes in trunk rotation from the first to the last inning, with the trunk becoming more erect. During the acceleration phase, there was a significant difference in trunk angle and during the deceleration phase, there were no significant differences found in joint angle between the first and last innings for all four joints evaluated. A significant difference in body position measured by the BioHarness was present between the first inning and the last two innings. There were no significant differences between innings for pitch velocity. CONCLUSION: Data from this study provides some important information for injury prevention in baseball pitchers. Internal and external rotation were not measurable from our camera angle, and that data could provide more information, as previous research has stated that shoulder internal rotation, shoulder external rotation, and shoulder abduction angles will decrease as pitch count increases (Erkel, 2009). The trunk becoming more erect and a greater shoulder horizontal adduction angle were consistent with previous research (Matsuo, 2000). Increased forces on the elbow may be due to the less lateral trunk tilt and/or the greater shoulder horizontal adduction angle. Fleisig (1994) investigated the relationship between elbow medial force and shoulder horizontal adduction, and found a significant correlation between increased horizontal adduction and increased maximum elbow medial force. This may translate into increased risk of injury. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: By understanding pitching biomechanics, pitching coaches, strength coaches, athletic trainers, and therapists can develop better preventative programs for pitchers, and use this information in a rehabilitative program. Learning how to interpret the information from the BioHarness and Dartfish to help identify poor mechanics and to make mechanical adjustments (corrections) during a game will help to offset potential injuries.


Friday, September 26, 2014

Fitness Standards for our Children? How much lower can we possibly lower standards?

Sunday, September 21, 2014

Overuse injuries from college athletics and future traumatic injury? Limitations in activity, obesity, and chronic diseases have already been linked.

Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease- this is the overuse injury (a form of arthritis) that possibly formed the bone spurs leading to a major injury, after a relatively minor accident that I should have  recovered from easily...

As I sit stuck in my bed after an auto accident, in a neck brace, almost 3 weeks later (and still progressing), I am watching the Alabama Crimson Tide play and this is the research publication I remembered completing at the Capstone (at UA) in 2006. I have followed a larger database of athletes to try to continue to answer a big question- is the stress of college athletics too much? Does it interfere with the long-term health and wellness of the athlete? Does the athlete have long-term limitations in activity due to injuries sustained in college athletics, or due to overtraining in college? Is the "price of competition" worth the cost?
In my current state, I can say no- after a high-speed rear end auto accident has left me bedridden due to a spinal cord injury. The bone spurs from overuse are what injured my cord. Ive lived the past 3 years with chronic pain, but this is scary and watching myself go downhill is even more disturbing. I have a hard time taking it easy, but I know it is essential to life/movement at this point. 
I want to revisit the impact of chronic injuries due to the excessive amount of training "necessary" in NCAA athletics and their long term risks...ironically, my research has led me to become a case study...

Prior Research:

Long Term Injuries in Athletes- My Open Access Publication in JEP:

Long-term Impact of Athletic Participation on Physical Capabilities. JEPonline 2007;10(1):34-47. Collegiate athletes undergo training regimens that place them under chronic stress, consequently increasing susceptibility to injuries and overtraining. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prior participation in collegiate athletics on limitations in daily life and limitations during exercise in the years following. Former Division I college athletes, and a demographically similar group of non-athlete alumni (controls), were surveyed via e-mail (n=15,000) concerning injuries incurred during participation in all varsity sports. Also included were questions about current health and activity status, and physical limitations. Of former athletes, 50% had major injuries while in college compared to 10% of controls (p<0.01), while 52% of athletes reported chronic injuries while only 11% of controls reported the same (p<0.01). Of the alumni controls, 4% reported limitations in daily life, and 6% reported limitations during exercise, while the athletes reported 21% and 36%, respectively (p<0.01 for each). These data suggest that prior collegiate athletics participation may result in a substantial physical cost, and are a first step in determining the potential long-term risks associated with participation in athletics. 



Friery, KB. Incidence of Injury and Disease Among Former Athletes:
A Review. JEPonline 2008;11(2):26-45. Athletes undergo vigorous
training in order to excel in their sport. They must participate in more
than the recommended amount of daily physical activity to be able to
reach a high level of competition. High levels of training may lead to high
amounts of injury in specific sports. The purpose of this review was to
examine the incidence of injury in athletes in specific sports. There have
been several studies that have tried to establish a link between future
disease risk and prior athletic participation. Prior injury may play a role in
the development of future disease. This review also examined the
relationship between specific sports and future chronic disease risk. A
comprehensive review of literature led to 2 review articles and 68
original research articles. These articles document onset of chronic
disease and injury risk in elite level athletes. Results confirm that more
research is needed in order to link injuries in early athletics with future
chronic disease risk. The risk of osteoarthritis after joint injury in athletic
competition is high, according to each study analyzed. Chronic disease
risk is not decreased for athletes versus nonathletes, unless activity is
maintained throughout the lifespan. This review may shed light into the
risk carried in specific sports for injury. This review may serve as a
starting place for future research into the risk of chronic disease in
athletes with prior injuries.

Key Words: Osteoarthritis, Chronic Disease, Athletic Injuries.

Sport Injury and College Athlete Health
Across the Lifespan

Restricted Activity Levels of Former Collegiate Athletes

Overtraining, Exercise, and Adrenal Insufficiency 

Injuries and Physical Limitations in Division I Female Collegiate Athletes,

Friday, August 22, 2014

Fluid Balance and Sodium Losses During Indoor Tennis Match

Research review
Lott, M. E., & Galloway, S. R. (2011). Fluid Balance and Sodium Losses During Indoor Tennis Match Play. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism21(6), 492-500.
The purpose of study is to observe the fluid intake strategies, fluid and sodium losses, and match play intensities of elite tennis players in an indoor environment. Before conducting study, they made hypothesize that the sweat rates and body mass deficits recorded would be lower than those reported in previous tennis related studies. If this hypothesize is correct, the players can more readily maintain fluid balance, and considering fluid replacement may not be as necessary as for outdoor warm conditions (2011, p. 492).

For this study, 16 male tennis players participated, and they were graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill to get VO2peak and did best of three sets singles tennis match conducted indoors. This research was approved by the University Ethics of Research Committee and written informed consent was provided for participants. They also were calculated heart rate to graded intensities of exercise. The data from this test were used to set up three heart rate intensity zones for analysis of the subsequent on court match. In addition, they also were asked to empty bladder and urine volume obtained before nude body mass was recorded. To get sweat volume, 4 sweat patches were used and temperature & humidity were recorded on a digital barometer. They were allowed to consume any drinks but what kind of drinks and how many they drank were recorded. Capillary blood sample was obtained right 3 min after match to analyze for glucose, lactate, and electrolytes (2011, pp. 493-494). 

In the result, we can know there’s no significant difference in body mass and replace percentage of fluid losses from sweating is individually variable (one player replaced only 26% of his fluid losses, whereas another ingested over 200% of fluid lost). Sweat sodium & chloride concentration were significantly higher at the back site than at any other sampling sites. In addition, no significant was observed in sweat osmolality between sampling sites. While urine volume was significantly higher post match than pre match, urine electrolyte concentration & osmolality were not different from pre- to post match. Moreover, blood glucose concentration decreased & blood lactate concentration increased significantly, but plasma sodium, potassium and chloride concentration were not different. Lastly, there’s a significant relationship between whole-body sweat loss and total fluid intake during the matches, but there’s no significant relationship between sweat rate & drinking rate (2011, pp. 495-496). 

However, this study has some limitation related with study period and environment. Since the characteristic of indoor play and this kind sport, there are lower sweat rates and frequent opportunities for fluid intake, every 6-10 min, each change of ends. Therefore, we can easily see moderate ambient indoor temperature conditions players on average do not lose as much sweat as in outdoor warmer environments. However, this point could be inapplicable trait even though it could be applicable for practice, because every real match is conducted outside with sunny and humidity. In addition, although there’s no need to concern right now about different plasma concentration (some players showed non-significant decline), if the match is going longer or subsequently conducted for few days, players such as these may require closer monitoring (2011, pp. 498-499).  

Heat Acclimatization and Hydration Status of American Football Players

Heat Acclimatization and Hydration Status of American Football Players During Initial Summer Workouts
Yeargan, Susan W., Douglas J. Casa, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Greig Watson, Daniel A. Judelson, Eleni Psathas, and Sarah L. Sparrow. "Heat Acclimatization and Hydration Status of American Football Players During Initial Summer Workouts." Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 20.3 (2006): n. pag. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the new NCAA model of heat acclimatization for Division I football players. We hypothesized that measurements would indicate acclimatization of football players and support the use of the new model.
Methods and Materials
Experimental Approach to the Problem
This observational study of a Division I football team evaluated the new NCAA heat acclimatization guidelines. The players completed a normal practice schedule, allowing researchers to critique heat acclimatization and thermoregulation.We observed the first 8 days, because the majority of heat acclimatization changes and heat illness episodes occur within this time frame. Measures of demographic information including age, weight, and football position provided us with a means of comparisons within the study and with existing literature. Dependent variables reflected commonly used measures of heat acclimatization and factors often observed by medical support staff as a means to ensure safety and to increase performance.
A convenience sample of 15 subjects was recruited for the study so as to include a variety of positions, positive attitudes, and no aversion to the temperature sensor. After illness and injury eliminated 4 prospects, 11 healthy student athletes (20 _ 1 year, 1.88 _ 0.05 m, 115.36 _ 18.85 kg, 15.9 _ 8.7% fat, and 32.8 _ 5.1 body mass index [BMI]) from the University of Connecticut football team were included and participated fully in all practices during the study. The following team positions were represented: defensive back, tight end, quarterback, wide receiver, offensive and defensive linemen, and  linebacker. The average weight for offensive linemen was 137.94 _ 5.8 kg; linebackers, 104.24 _ 4.05 kg; and tight ends and defensive tackles, 126.55 _ 5.79 kg. The quarterback,
wide receiver, and defensive back average weight was 96.44 _ 9.86 kg. All subjects were either first- or second string players, all receiving significant playing time during practices. Each subject participated in strength and conditioning programs over the summer that were held 4 days a week. The participants were considered to be in good to excellent condition when beginning preseason football. All players attended an orientation regarding the purpose, procedures, risks, and benefits of this investigation, and they provided their informed voluntary consent to participate in accordance with Institutional Review Board standards.
Experimental Design
This field study observed the first 8 days of preseason summer football training camp in August. Days 1–5 and day 7 consisted of 1 practice per day; days 6 and 8 had 2
practices each day. Equipment was gradually phased in over the week; only helmets were worn the first 2 days, helmets and shoulder pads for days 3 and 4, and full pads on days 5–8. The first half of practices comprised individual position drills that consisted of blocking sleds, pass accuracy, route running, and defensive covering. Team drills  occurred during the second half of practice and consisted of punt return, tackle drills, and scrimmage. Conditioning, consisting mainly of sprints outside, concluded most practices.
Strength training occurred before or after practices in indoor facilities. As the week progressed, observed intensity increased as equipment was added and more contact
drills were included. Fluid was provided by portable hydration units that were available to players at 10 positions throughout the field so they could be accessed by the players during any down time. Athletic training students also had water bottles to provide players with fluids at any time during practice. Regular breaks were scheduled throughout the practice to give players more time to hydrate as needed. Background information and dietary intake for each subject were obtained prior to preseason camp. Physiological
and perceptual measurements were taken 1 hour prior to, immediately prior to, during, and after each practice. Average times of day for 1 hour prepractice measurements
were 7:06 AM and 1:24 PM. The average time for the first practice measurements in the morning was 7:56 AM and in the afternoon, 2:56 PM. Average times for midpractice measurements were 9:29 AM and 4:23 PM and final practice measurements were at 10:46 AM and 5:37 PM.
Summary of Results/Conclusion
The study found that athlete’s sensitivity to the heat reduced after the first two days of practice. Also, the uniforms reduce heat loss to varying degrees since the fabric can cover more than 50 % of the athlete’s body. Through additions of various equipment throughout practice, thermal strain remained unchanged due to improved thermoregulation through heat acclimatization.
Critique of Study
This study was very interesting to read. I played football in high school and felt cooler with pads on.  The data collected in this study supports that the use of equipment in heat has no effect on contributing to athletes overheating. However, throughout the majority of the study, the weather conditions were ideal and athlete’s are in a conditioned state entering practice. I would like to see the study done in more extreme conditions with a randomized sample of people as compared to college athletes.
Practical Application
The new NCAA guidelines are supported by the present study. This study indicates the importance of proper heat acclimatization, appropriate time between practices, the phasing of equipment, and limiting the number of practices. Several variables, such as Ucol, Usg, body weight change, and environmental conditions, can be monitored by personnel to track the progress of players. ESQ scores, heart rate, and core body temperature also may be monitored in high-risk athletes during the first 8 days of summer practices. Coaches, strength and conditioning coaches, and athletic trainers should consider using the aforementioned variables with their own teams to ensure proper hydration and heat acclimatization. Teams at differing levels should refer to the NCAA guidelines (28), evaluate their own preseason procedure, and make appropriate changes so that heat acclimatization occurs to ensure safety and performance of players

Failure of Protein to Improve Time Trial Performance when Added to a Sports Drink

The present study investigated whether the addition of 2% protein to a 6% carbohydrate drink would improve 80-km cycling time trial performance, as compared with a 6% carbohydrate drink and non-energetic sweetened placebo, when ingested at a rate of 1 L per hour.
Methods and Materials:
Ten trained male cyclists with a background in either road cycling or triathlon volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects were also advised to keep their habitual diet as constant as possible over the course of the experiment. Fluid was ingested during exercise at a rate of 250 mL every 15 min, which ensured a carbohydrate delivery rate of 60 during the two carbohydrate-supplemented trials. Before the actual experimental trials, all subjects performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion on an electrically braked cycle ergometer to determine V ̇ O2peak. The test consisted of a 3-min warm-up at 100 W, followed by an increase of 1 W every 2 s until they were tired, which was defined as the point at which pedal rate fell below 50 rpm.
Summary of Results/Conclusion:
The main finding from the present study was that the addition of 2% protein to a 6% carbohydrate solution did not improve 80-km time trial performance compared with 6% carbohydrate alone when ingested during exercise at a rate of 1 L per hour. These findings demonstrate that when trained athletes ingest carbohydrate during exercise in an amount considered near optimal for carbohydrate oxidation, protein does not improve performance during an activity that closely mimics athletic competition.
Critique of Study:
I thought this was an okay study, not particularly impressive or anything. The number of subjects (10) was very low, making it difficult to make generalizations from this study’s findings. Also, I think I would have been more swayed if athletes other than cyclists had been studied.  
Practical Application(s) of Study:
The main message I can take away from this is that adding protein to a sports drink doesn’t really help one way or another when it comes to power output/recovery in athletes. Knowing this, when I am approached by one of my athletes with this question, I will be able to tell them and save them the extra effort and hopefully a few bucks in the bank.

Unanswered Questions:
Would the results be the same if this study/experiment were performed on football players or a different “explosive” sport?

Would the results be the same if the study were performed the same way with female cyclists/athletes?
Because subjects were instructed to keep their diets the same for the duration of the study, how do we know that their diet wasn’t protein-deficient to begin with?

Van Essen, M., & Gibala, M. J. (2006). Failure of protein to improve time trial performance when added to a sports drink. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise38(8), 1476.

Division IAA football players and risk factors for metabolic syndrome

Repovich, W. S. & Babcock, G. J. (2012).  Division IAA football players and risk factors for metabolic syndrome.  ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 7(1), 34-39.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations and significant differences in body composition and blood pressure between linemen, line backers, and all others.  The second
purpose was to determine  whether the assessments in this study would be able to classify
football players who might be at risk for MetS and eventually CVD.
Methods and Materials
            The participants of this study were 55 football players participating in the 2009 spring season.  Their average age was 20.31, with a standard deviation of 1.15, the average height was 1.85 meters.  There were 16 linebackers, 25 linemen from both offense and defense, and the rest were considered in the other category.           
            The research was conducted of a Division IAA sports program who was participating in the Big Sky Athletic Conference.  At the beginning of the 2009 spring season a meeting was held, and from this meeting they received permission through an informed consent form from 55 players.  Along with the consent the players agreed to be tested where the following data was collected: Height, weight (for BMI calculation), blood pressure, and body composition. 
The testing was done prior to afternoon spring practice.  Each participant had lunch without any carbonated drinks 1 hour before testing.  When participants arrived at the lab for testing they were placed in a BOD POD (10X10 room) closed off from the rest of the lab for a rest period of 5 minutes.  After the rest period their blood pressure was taken using a standard aneroid sphygogmomanometer.  Blood Pressure was measured while the participant was seated and the left arm was measured with the cuff.  Both the diastolic and systolic blood pressure was measured for data analysis.  Height was measured using a stadiometer on a Detecto Physician Scale. The weight was measured during the body composition analysis.  They used both height and weight measurements to determine the BMI of each participant.  Participants were also required to wear Under Armour compression shorts and a swim cap for measurement.  BF% and residual lung volume was also measured and recorded on the data sheet.
Summary of Results/Conclusions
            According to the study, the data suggest that other players on the team possess risk factors for MetS; however determining the risk for CVD is much more complicated.  The majority of the data fell into the norm and expectation for the players’ height, weight, and position.  In addition, finding a single elevated risk factor is not enough to necessarily need to be medically followed up with.  However, it is the recommendation from this study that athletic trainers or physicians should pay close attention to those players which have higher than normal body composition and/or blood pressure through a season and over players’ years of participation. 
            Being a linemen in football carries many pressures to sustain and develop a certain body image.  Linemen are expected to be taller and heavier than all other positions.  The results are they have a higher percentage of body fat, and they are more at risk of cardiovascular disease due to their size they are expected to carry.  These athletes need to be educated by coaches and health care providers that life after football needs to include a weight loss plan, and life style change to be health in the long term.
Application of the Study
            Studies such as these can be used and applied to assist athlete who are ending their careers as football linemen.  It can be difficult to change a certain kind of expectation and training that has been done for many years.  Sometimes it is more effective to view research to show how the impact of an increase body fat percentage can have on health.
Unanswered Questions

            The result of this also suggest that other players on the team with the lowest body composition also possess risk factors that could lead to CVD.  This left me wondering how much genetics and family health history played a role in the players with the lower body composition. .

Antioxidant status of elite athletes remains impaired 2 weeks after a simulated altitude training camp

Pialoux, V., Brugniaux, J., Rock, E., Mazur, A., Schmitt, L., Richalet, J., & ... Mounier, R.
(2010). Antioxidant status of elite athletes remains impaired 2 weeks after a simulated altitude training camp. European Journal of Nutrition49(5), 285-292.

Purpose of Study
“ Live high-train low” (LHTL) has become a type of method elite athletes use when it comes to endurance training for competition. The altitude exposure is to increase the oxygen transport capacity. In previous studies, evidence has shown that the antioxidant status is altered when in various altitudes. Surprisingly, there is no information in regards to the antioxidant restoration during the recovery period. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant status is impaired by 18 days LHTL in elite athletes and remains altered after 14 days of recovery. Plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehydes (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) lipid-soluble antioxidants were measured before (PRE), the first day after (POST1), and again 2 weeks (POST14) after the training (Pialoux et. al, 2010)
Methods and Materials
            Eleven elite cross-country skiers from the French Skiing Federation were submitted into an 18 day endurance training program. There they were split into two groups: the Hypoxic Group (HG, n=6) where they trained at 1200m and lived in hypoxia (simulated altitude of 2500m, 3000m, 3500m) and the Control Group (CG, n=5) where they trained and lived at 1200m. Written informed consents were given to each participant whom are noteworthy to say that all were low-altitude residents and were not acclimatized to altitude prior to this study. During the training aspect, the HG trained 2hrs per day at 1200m while they spent resting and sleeping periods 11hrs per day in an altitude of 2500m, 3000m, and 3500m for six days each. The CG lived and trained at the same altitude of 1200m. Biomechanical analysis and vitamin A,C, and E intake measurements were taken.
Summary of Results/Conclusion
            Both the HG and CG showed results of decreased antioxidant status at POST1 but after 14 days of recovery, the values of CG returned to baseline levels. As for HG, antioxidant levels still remained even lower suggesting that LHTL affects the mid-term recovery of the antioxidant status. There was a decrease in FRAP after training but it was seen to be lower for women compared to men. During training, HG intakes of vitamin E were significantly lower than those of CG. For vitamin A and C, intake was close to the RDA regardless of the training/recover and group (HG/CG).
Critique of Study
            It is great to see a study in an area that has yet to really be understood. In saying that, the fault is that there still needs to be more studies with various procedures to come up with a universal report that can be approved in the scientific community. A set back with this study is the fact that a very small sample group (n=11) was used. Having more results to look at from a larger population could make it more reliable and valid.
Practical Application(s) of the Study
            Studies as such can be useful for coaches and trainers in knowing how long recovery can take for athletes. Insight can be given for coming up with more optimal nutritional plans to aid athletes in training. Further studies should be done to determine whether antioxidant supplementation should be prescribed to athletes planning repeated and long LHTL camps during training season.
How could the results have been had there been a larger sample group with even ratio of men/women?
Could time of year play an impact to results?

How does this affect athletes at even lower altitudes than the one prescribed in this study?

Livestrong- Caloric Cost of Exercise: Swimming vs. Running

**I wrote this article for, along with several others over the years. They edit the articles down to the point that they are very generic, and require that the topic is very specific. 
They ask "experts" to write a short article with a title that is the very same as a question a person has asked They also ask "experts" to make videos on topics that people have "googled." So the title of my video series may be "How do I lose weight using shake weight" or some other exercise trend. This is why I do not recommend the company (as well as other professionals i know). 
Recently, I noticed that they removed author acknowledgment, and I do not agree with that practice!



Weight training builds lean body mass, which will increase metabolic rate.
Hemera Technologies/ Images

Daily caloric expenditure is highly dependent on resting metabolic rate and physical activity. While aerobic exercise, such as swimming, burns more calories during the activity, if duration is the same, weight training or anaerobic exercise builds lean body mass and increases metabolism. Choosing an activity that you like is important, so that you are physically active and burn calories. Aerobic activity will strengthen the heart, while anaerobic will build bone density. Caloric expenditure goals can be reached through either type of exercise.
Contributions to Daily Caloric Expenditure
Resting metabolic rate, or the minimal number of calories required to sustain the body in a resting state, is the largest contributor to daily caloric needs at around 60 to 70 percent. Physical activity usually makes up about 15 to 25 percent, and the thermic effect of food, or energy required for digestion and cellular processes, makes up the rest. Because resting metabolic rate is such a large component of daily energy expenditure, increasing that rate will allow you to burn more calories each day. Increasing lean body mass will increase resting metabolic rate. Weight training and anaerobic exercise increase lean body mass, while aerobic exercise, such as swimming, does not.

Caloric Cost of Exercise
Physical activity and exercise are important for increasing bone density, protecting the heart, preventing chronic disease, and for maintenance of weight, flexibility, body composition and other health-related fitness components. Aerobic exercise requires increasing heart rate to a steady state for a given duration. Many calories are burned during aerobic exercise such as swimming. Anaerobic exercise requires use of the aerobic system as you recover. During anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, you may not burn as many calories for a given duration, but post exercise, the body has to work harder to restore itself to baseline after anaerobic exercise. Thus, caloric expenditure during exercise combined with the post exercise period, called excess post oxygen consumption, may be higher in weight lifting than swimming. Factors such as a person's weight, the exercise duration and intensity need to be considered.

Increasing Resting Metabolic Rate
Anaerobic exercise like weight training, which is exercise that is completed at a high intensity without oxygen present, increases lean muscle mass. The body cannot keep up with oxygen needs when a person is at an extremely high intensity, as in weight lifting or sprinting, thus energy needs are met by anaerobic sources. Anaerobic exercise or resistance training will also involve negative muscle contractions, or eccentric contractions, more than aerobic exercise such as swimming. These types of contractions cause muscle soreness, or a breakdown in tissue that must be rebuilt. This will cause the muscle fiber size to increase, which will increase resting metabolic rate, a large component of the calories burned each day.
A Balanced Approach
It is important to incorporate both anaerobic and aerobic exercise into your exercise and physical activity. Aerobic activity will burn calories and protect the heart. Anaerobic exercise increases muscle size, bone density and metabolic rate, which increases the number of calories you burn each day. Swimming and weight lifting would both be important components of a fitness program.
Ruston, LA 71270
Key Concepts
  • calories burned Lifting
  • Calories burned swimming
  • anaerobic caloric expenditure
User Bio
Kelly Brooks is a professor and Applied Physiology Lab director. She has worked in physiological and biomechanical research for more than eight years. She is certified by the American College of Sports Medicine (HFS), National Strength and Conditioning Association (CSCS*D) and the American Society of Exercise Physiologists (EPC). Brooks obtained her Ph.D. at the University of A

Livestrong article- Muscles Used Heavily in Gymnastics

**I wrote this article for, along with several others over the years. They edit the articles down to the point that they are very generic, and require that the topic is very specific. 
They ask "experts" to write a short article with a title that is the very same as a question a person has asked They also ask "experts" to make videos on topics that people have "googled." So the title of my video series may be "How do I lose weight using shake weight" or some other exercise trend. This is why I do not recommend the company (as well as other professionals i know). 
Recently, I noticed that they removed author acknowledgment, and I do not agree with that at all!

Many muscle groups are involved in the sport of gymnastics. When specifically rhythmic gymnastics.
Photodisc/Photodisc/Getty Images
Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or teams combine elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance and apparatus manipulation to perform a routine. At times a gymnast may manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus, including rope, clubs, hoop, ball or ribbon, or perform "free" or with no apparatus in a floor routine. The participant who earns the most points, determined by a panel of judges, for leaping, balance, pirouettes, flexibility, apparatus handling, execution and artistic effect is the winner. There are many muscle involved in this sport; large muscle groups and small muscles required for manipulative skills are involved in every aspect of this activity.

Neuromuscular Control in the Rhythmic Gymnast
Leaping involves many large joints in the body.
Photodisc/Photodisc/Getty Images
To obtain high scores and combine all elements, a gymnast must have highly developed proprioreception and motor control, obtained through neurological development, through years of practice. The neuromuscular system must coordinate movements, and very fine control is required. Perfection in practice is essential for a translation into perfect performance, as the body will develop neurological pathways to control muscle with continual practice. Improper practice will translate into improper muscle recruitment. Performance will mimic practice. It is difficult to correct improper form after neurological pathways are developed. Knowledge of what muscle groups should be recruited is essential for success in rhythmic gymnastics.

Train Specifically to Improve Perfomance
Several muscles are used in rhythmic gymnastics. The sport requires fine control during manipulative skills, and a large range of motion at several joints in the body. The most important focus for the gymnast when examining which muscles to focus on is to train specifically for each event. Using principal of specificity in training, the neuromuscular system is vital to success. Train the muscles used in the correct way, using correct form, and the gymnast will be successful.

Trunk Movements and Muscles

Many parts of rhythmic gymnastics require a combination of joint movements and muscle contraction.
Jupiterimages/BananaStock/Getty Images
Trunk flexion and extension commonly occur in the gymnast during many movements. Hyperextension of the trunk, using the erector spinae, or back muscles, is common. Flexion in the trunk will incorporate the rectus abdominus, or ab muscles. Lateral flexion and reduction are performed as the gymnast moves the spine laterally. The external and internal obliques are used in these movements. Increases in trunk strength will help increase core stability, which translates into improved performance.

Upper Body Movements and Muscles
Manipulative skills involve fine motor control and proprioreceptive feedback from the upper body. The fingers will move to manipulate the particular apparatus used by the gymnast at certain times. Intrinsic, small hand muscles play a large role in manipulating objects in rhythmic gymnastics. Larger muscles that control the wrist and fingers, such as the extensor capri radialis located in the forearm, will play a role in wrist and hand movements. The elbow will flex and extend, using biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis for flexion, and triceps brachii for extension. The shoulder movement will incorportate the deltoid, the lats or latissimus dorsi, as well as several smaller rotator cuff muscles. The shoulder girdle provides a base of support for shoulder movements, so muscles on your back, such as rhomboids and the trapezius, will be used. To improve the fine control needed in this sport, specific training and emphasizing correct form during practice are essential.

Lower Body Movements and Muscles
Hyperextension of the hip is imporant to increase range of motion in leaps. Images
A gymnast performs several actions in the lower body. As the gymnast moves laterally, hip abduction and adduction are performed. The hip abductors and adductors, such as tensor fascia latae, gluteus medius, gracilis, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus, perform these actions. Hip flexion and extension, as well as knee flexion and extension, and ankle dorsal and plantar flexion occur as the gymnast leaps. Dorsal flexion requires contraction of the tibialis posterior, located on the front of the shin, while plantar flexion will use agonist muscle gastrocnemius and soleus, the calf muscles. Hip flexors used are psoas major and minor, iliacus, and pectineus, which are located in front of the hip and on the front of the leg. In the back of the leg are the hip extensors, which extend the leg back during a leap.These include gluteus maximus, semitendinosous, semimembranosous and biceps femoris. Several large and small muscles are involved in the lower body. Training these muscles to have the correct form, through specifically practicing as you want to perform, will help optimize performance.

Key Concepts
  • neuromuscular
  • muscles and joints
  • rhythmic gymnastics
Resources (Further Reading)
User Bio

Kelly Brooks is a professor and Applied Physiology Lab director. She has worked in physiological and biomechanical research for more than eight years. She is certified by the American College of Sports Medicine (HFS), National Strength and Conditioning Association (CSCS*D) and the American Society of Exercise Physiologists (EPC). Brooks obtained her Ph.D. at the University of Alabama.